Valuation intangible assets

Business Valuation can only do the above is not tangible assets that meet the following characteristics: It can be identified and described specifically; Assets can not produce some tangible economic benefits that can be measured in economic value added or reduced cost; Having the ability to improve the function of other assets associated with tangible assets, or not able to give added value to the assets as a whole, to become the subject of the rights of ownership or control that can be transferred legally; can be recognized and protected by the law exists; There is real evidence of the existence of tangible assets such as no license; Created in the a certain time or resulting from a particular incident, and economic well-aged that can be terminated at a certain time. 

Valuation intangible assets can done with the base on the approaches as follows: Cost Approach, Market Approach (comparable market approach or transaction), and / or income approach. 

The cost approach can be applied to assess the tangible assets are not in a condition that not more than one year and / or have the same functionality, can be exchanged or substitution with no tangible assets other. 

Terms of use Cost Approach: This approach can be done with a method that is based on: Cost to re-creating the (cost of recreation), the method is re-created the method to measure the economic benefits that will be (future benefits) of the ownership of tangible assets do not sum up the costs issued a compulsory, to replace the ability to give the benefit of these assets do not exist in the future. Cost reimbursement (cost of replacement). create or provide a return less amortization (cost of reproduction or replacement less depreciation appraisal). 

Business evaluator must identify the costs that have been issued to create and develop the most tangible assets are not less include: cost of materials, labor costs, indirect costs (overhead); normal profit developers, and investment incentives in the form of assets are not tangible assets. 

Costs have been identified based on the time spent, converted to the value or cost at this time (current cost) by using the consumer price index (trended historical cost), or take into account the opportunity cost (Opportunity Cost) of the costs that have been issued in a comparable investment . 

Estimate the remaining period of benefit or the benefit age (remaining useful life) of tangible assets is not assessed to determine the value of obsolescence or depreciation of assets are not tangible. 

Appraisal depreciation is obsolescence of the asset value does not exist that can be caused by the development of technology, patent age, the reduced ability to tangible assets do not generate more profits. Appraisal depreciation is not equal to the accounting depreciation. 

Fair value of tangible assets are not generated from the cost approach is the number of charges issued mandatory at this time (current cost), less the estimated depreciation.

Terms of use of the market approach: 
Assessment methods based on tangible assets do not approach the market is a process where the estimated fair value of tangible assets are not generated in a way not to analyze the shape of similar assets that have been sold and then compare this transaction with the assets that are not tangible. 

Business Valuation need to do the analysis comparable between tangible assets is not assessed with no tangible assets that made the guidelines. Elements that made the comparison between the most or less are: Type and / or form of ownership of assets are not tangible; form of spending (financing) or the payment of the transaction occurred; The use of (the benefits) of the assets are not tangible; economic characteristics of assets not the shape and characteristics of use and obsolescence of assets do not exist. Business uses the evaluator can direct market data method (direct market data) or the assessment ratio or multiplier factor price (price multiple). If the assessment ratio used as the numerator is the selling price of the assets are not tangible guidelines and denominator is the choice of income variable in the in the Profit-Loss statement from the company where the assets are not tangible guidelines are used. Reconciliation and conclusions need to be value evaluator Business when used as multiple different multiplier factors. 

Terms of use of the income approach: 
Income approach is the application of discount or capitalization methods (economic benefits of the conversion method): the value of tangible assets is not the number of present value (present value) of benefits (income) generated by the economic assets that are not tangible; economic benefits produced no tangible assets in the discounted on the front of the discount rate or capitalization capitalized on the relevant level. This method can be used for tangible assets not related to marketing, customers, contracts, Goodwill is not tangible assets or the economic benefits can be quantification easily. 

Economic benefits that can be used form of profit or cash flow. Components economic benefits generated by the tangible assets is not as good as the use and ownership (royalty fee), and can be grouped into: acquisition or improvement of income related to assets are not tangible (increment profit or cash flow); cost reduction due to the use of assets not the shape of the (cost decrement); and / or lower costs due to the investment assets are not tangible. 

Income approach can be applied to assessment of tangible assets is not as elements of the company that runs (intangible collective assets, going concern value, big pot of Goodwill), assessment of tangible assets are not individually as part of the company that runs (individual intangible assets as a part of going concern) and for the assessment of assets do not exist as individual economic units (stand alone intangible assets).


  1. Anonymous2/11/2009

    good blog.

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